The biography of honorable Suda

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Suda was the daughter of Zoma’a bin Qais from Quraysh Tribe of Mecca. She was originally a descendent of Lovai, one of the ancestors of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). His father was one the first people who accepted Islam at the beginning of the Prophet's mission.

Suda first married his cousin, AmribnAbd al-Shams, and they had a son named Abdul al-Rahman. With the advent of Islam and the Prophet’s (PBUH) callto Islam, Suda accepted Islam and then her husband did so. Then she and her husband together with a number of those who newly became Muslims migrated to Abyssinia due to the intensity of the persecution and harassment of infidels of Mecca.

After the Muslims' victory in Mecca and the acceptance of Islam by people of Mecca, immigrants returned from Abyssinia to Mecca. On their way to Mecca, Suda’s husband died. When she learned that people of Mecca did not accept Islam and even added to their persecution against Muslims, in addition to the tragedy of losing her husband, she became very worry about the behavior of her infidel family.

At that time, the loneliness and widowhood of a woman was considered too obscene as well as too dangerous. So strangers and unmarried women had to seek the help of a tribe or a head of a clan so that they would be free from others’ ill-treatment. In such a way they could keep on their lives.


Proposing marriage to the Prophet (PBUH)

Concurrent with the described events and in those difficult days and among all sorrow and sadness, Abu Talib, the Prophet's (PBUH) uncle died and after a short period of time Prophet's wife, honorable Khadija passed away, too. The Prophet (PBUH) got extremely sad for the loss of his uncle and wife.

After the death of Khadija (SA), Prophet (PBUH) remained single for one year. Companions of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) worried about the prophet and they were also aware of the status of Khadija (SA). They wanted to relieve the Prophet’s sorrow for the loss of Khadija (SA). Therefore, they sent Khulabint Hakim the wife of Othman bin Maz’un to Prophet (PBUH) Khula was one of the Faithfull women.

Upon her meeting with the Prophet, Khula told him: “O Messenger of Allah, I know the loss of Khadija (SA) made you very grieve.”The Prophet (PBUH) replied: "Yes, she was the mother of my children and my family."

Khulasaid:"Why do not you marry, O Messenger of Allah?" Prophet (PBUH) was silent for a while and the tears started to pour down from his eyes. Then he said: "Is there someone for me after Khadija?"

Khula got the opportunity and said quickly: "Can I propose marriage to someone for you?"

Finally, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) agreed with the proposition to Suda who was an elderly woman.

Khula went to Suda and told her: "Good news! Today is the best day of your life since you have born."

Suda: "Why?"

Khula: "The Prophet (PBUH) has sent me to give his marriage proposal to you."

Suda: "Does the Prophet (PBUH) really want to marry me!"

Khula: "Yes, I told him about you and he asked me to propose to you."

Despite her old age and her marital history; Suda respected his father and said: "So, get my father's permission."

Khula says: "I went to Suda’s father and told him: Mohammed bin Abdullah wants to propose marriage to you daughter, Suda"."

Suda’s father said:" Mohammed is a great and generous (man) but ask Suda, what is her opinion?"

When Suda expressed her full satisfaction, her father said. : "Tell Mohammad come for proposition ceremony."

This happy marriage took place in Ramadan, the tenth year after the start of the prophecy of Mohammad (PBUH) and the Prophet did not marry another woman for three years.

The Prophet's marriage with an elderly woman was surprised people of Mecca and after their marriage; Suda was protected from their persecution.

After accepting Islam and becoming a Muslim, Abdullah bin Zoma’a Suda’s brother, said regretfully:"I was acting like a crazy person when I heard the news of my sister’s marriage with the Prophet and I was putting soil on my head."

After this marriage, many people from Suda’s tribe converted to Islam in large numbers because of their love for the Prophet (PBUH) and his superhuman morality.

The marriage took place a year before Hijra. Suda worked diligently to look after Fatima (AS) and her sister, Umm Kulthum. It should be noted that during the period when the Prophet was living in Mecca he married three women: Khadija, Suda, and Aisha. Other marriages of the Prophet (PBUH) took place after his migration to Medina.


Suda’s efforts to make the Prophet(PBUH) happy

According to some quotes from the Traditions Books, Suda despite of her age difference with Prophet (PBUH) was a dignified and honorable woman and was very kind to the Prophet (PBUH).

Umm Al-momenin Suda, always tries hard to please the Prophet (PBUH) with her actions and words and despite her old age she had a great sense of humor when meeting the Messenger of Allah (PBUH).

Suda always talks about pleasant and funny issues to make the Prophet (PBUH) happy and joyful.

After his migration from Mecca to Medina and her settlement in Medina, the Prophet (PBUH) sent Zaid bin Haresa and his servant ,Aba Rafeh, along with two camels and five hundred dirhams to Mecca to bring back Fatima (AS), Umm Kulthum, Suda, Umm Iman (Zaid bin Haresa’s wife), and Osama bin Zeid to Medina.

Zaid accomplished his mission and resided them at Haresa bin Nu'man’s house.

Zahabi says: Prophet (PBUH) built the first house for Suda in Medina and did not marry any other woman up to three years.

According to some traditions, after Hazrat Khadija; Suda was the most generous wife of the Prophet (PBUH).

IbnSa'd narrated from Muhammad ibnCyrine that Omar send a pot full of Dirhams for Suda. She asked: What’s this? They said: Dirhams. Then Suda distributed the money among the people who were presented there.

Suda’s accompaniment with the Prophet (PBUH) in some battles

Some narratives say that Suda accompanied Prophet (PBUH) in some battles like the War of Khyber.

IbnSa'd in his book Tabiqat “Classes” writes: Prophet gave Suda seventy Vasaq (a weighting unit) of dates and twenty Vasaq of barley in the battle of Khyber. This shows that she was with prophet in the battle of Khyber.


When the wives of the Prophet (PBUH) were unhappy with the methods of giving alimony used by the Prophet, they demanded him to increase the amount of the alimony. The Prophet (PBUH) gave freedom to his wives either to stay with him or get divorced. Then this verse was revealed:

“O Prophet, Say to thy wives: If you desire this world's life and its adornment, come and I give your nuptial and I will set you free happily. And if you want Allah, His messenger, and the Residence of the Hereafter, Allah hath prepared a great reward for You Good Doers” (Ahzab: 28-29).

Upon hearing these verses, Suda quickly went to the Prophet (PBUH) and said: I want nothing.

Aisha narrated that: “…. Suda was afraid that Mohammad might divorce her because of her old age”.

Suda was like a grandmother for Aisha. She used to say repeatedly :"I want God to select me as the Prophet’s wife on the Doomsday.

Some historians have written that there were some disagreements between the Prophet (PBUH) and Suda and the Prophet (PBUH) wanted to divorce her. Suda told him: O Prophet (PBUH), I ask you no to divorce me so that I will be among your wives on the Doomsday. Therefore, the Prophet did not divorce her.


Suda’s actions in the Farewell Pilgrimage

Suda with the other wives of the Prophet (PBUH) went to Farewell Pilgrimage and visited Masjid al-Haram. However, as they were ordered in the Quran to stay in their homes, they did not travel again to Mecca.

It is an obligation for a person who is in the state of Ihram to go to Muzdalifah to perform the Morning Prayer there after becoming free from Arafat and then he/she leaves that place. When Suda and the Prophet were performing the rituals of the Farewell Pilgrimage, she performed the actions with great difficulty, as she was very old. She told the Prophet:"O the Messenger of Allah! I cannot stay until the morning". The Prophet (PBUH) allowed her to leave and perform the ceremony of “Throwing Stones to Walls” (Ramy-e Jamarat) and do the obligatory circumambulation before the dawn when the number of pilgrims was a few and this has been permitted since that time for those who have an excuse and are unable to do the obligatory circumambulation.

The second caliph, Omar IbnKhattab, during his caliphate allowed once all of the Prophet’s wives to do Pilgrimage. All of the Prophet’s wives visited Ka’aba except for Suda and ZainabbintJahsh who said they would not go out after the death of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH). Suda said: I will stay at home, as Allah has ordered me.


Suda’s obedience of Allah and His Prophet(PBUH)

Suyuti writes: After the revelation of the verse: “And stay in your houses and do not display yourselves like those of early ignorance”; when people asked Suda why she did not go to performe the Hajj and Umrah. She said: God has commanded me to not get out of my house and I must stay home.

It was written that she did not go out of her house until her dead body was taken out of the house.

Suda’s death

Suda passed away during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab and she was buried in al-Baqi Cemetery.




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